Monday, 29 April 2019

The “Blub Paradox” and C++

Here is another of my answers from Stack Overflow that is getting down votes:

is there some powerful language feature or idiom that you make use of in a language that would be hard to conceptualize or implement if you were writing only in c++?
Are there any useful concepts or techniques that you have encountered in other languages that you would have found difficult to conceptualize had you been writing or "thinking" in c++?
C++ makes many approaches intractable. I would go so far as to say that most of programming is hard to conceptualize if you limit yourself to C++. Here are some examples of problems that are much more easily solved in ways that C++ makes hard.

Register allocation and calling conventions

Many people think of C++ as a bare metal low level language but it really isn't. By abstracting away important details of the machine, C++ makes it hard to conceptualize practicalities like register allocation and calling conventions.
To learn about concepts like these I recommend having a go at some assembly language programming and check out this article about ARM code generation quality.

Run-time code generation

If you only know C++ then you probably think that templates are the be-all and end-all of metaprogramming. They aren't. In fact, they are an objectively bad tool for metaprogramming. Any program that manipulates another program is a metaprogram, including interpreters, compilers, computer algebra systems and theorem provers. Run-time code generation is a useful feature for this.
I recommend firing up a Scheme implementation and playing with EVAL to learn about metacircular evaluation.

Manipulating trees

Trees are everywhere in programming. In parsing you have abstract syntax trees. In compilers you have IRs that are trees. In graphics and GUI programming you have scene trees.
This "Ridiculously Simple JSON Parser for C++" weighs in at just 484 LOC which is very small for C++. Now compare it with my own simple JSON parser which weighs in at just 60 LOC of F#. The difference is primarily because ML's algebraic datatypes and pattern matching (including active patterns) make it vastly easier to manipulate trees.
Check out red-black trees in OCaml too.

Purely functional data structures

Lack of GC in C++ makes it practically impossible to adopt some useful approaches. Purely functional data structures are one such tool.
For example, check out this 47-line regular expression matcher in OCaml. The brevity is due largely to the extensive use of purely functional data structures. In particular, the use of dictionaries with keys that are sets. That is really hard to do in C++ because the stdlib dictionaries and sets are all mutable but you cannot mutate a dictionary's keys or you break the collection.
Logic programming and undo buffers are other practical examples where purely functional data structures make something that is hard in C++ really easy in other languages.

Tail calls

Not only does C++ not guarantee tail calls but RAII is fundamentally at odds with it because destructors get in the way of a call in tail position. Tail calls let you make an unbounded number of function calls using only a bounded amount of stack space. This is great for implementing state machines, including extensible state machines and it is a great "get out of jail free" card in many otherwise-awkward circumstances.
For example, check out this implementation of the 0-1 knapsack problem using continuation-passing style with memoization in F# from the finance industry. When you have tail calls, continuation passing style can be an obvious solution but C++ makes it intractable.

Concurrency

Another obvious example is concurrent programming. Although this is entirely possible in C++ it is extremely error prone compared to other tools, most notably communicating sequential processes as seen in languages like Erlang, Scala and F#.

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